MASONIC COP MURDERS,PRISON,VIOLENCE, INTIMIDATION, PERSECUTION AND COVER UPS
|How to Survive an Encounter with the Police VIDEO
|Which machine gun totting London met cop ain't a freemason?
|300+ British cops accused of using their position to sexually exploit people, including victims of crime
FULL ARTICLE HERE
Global media produce thousands of POSITIVE promotion of police dramas yet NONE are close to how the freemason murdering thugs actually behave
(We have YET to come across any cop that acts anywhere near how they are protrayed in fictional dramas)
The masonic scum and filth employed as so called LAW enforcement use domestic abuse allegations to
access women who report DV cajoled by British lawyers ripping off legal aid and who then find they
are sexually exploited by pervert cops. Those same cops remove children from their biological fathers
and then can access those children for their own sexual deviancy and sinister at the extreme. We have
personal experience of male cops forcibly removing children, using dodgy divorce court orders, from their
fathers and left vulnerable while in the hands of the dregs of society presently employed as supposed police officers.
More than 300 police officers have been accused of using their position to sexually exploit people, including victims of crime, a report has said.
Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary said abuse of authority for sexual gain was now the "most serious" form of corruption facing police in England and Wales.
The watchdog's figures were gathered over two years to the end of March.
The National Police Chiefs' Council described the problem as a "disease".
It acknowledged that more needed to be done to "root it out and inoculate policing for the future".
Chief Constable Stephen Watson, the NPCC's lead for counter-corruption, said: "It is the most serious form of corruption and it can never be justified or condoned."
Police and sexual exploitation
England and Wales (two years to March)
436 reported allegations of abuse of authority for sexual gain
306 police officers accused
28 Police Community Support Officers and police staff also accused
40% of allegations involved victims of crime
Source: Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary
HMIC said its police "legitimacy" inspection was positive overall, with high satisfaction among victims at how they were treated.
The watchdog was asked to investigate the extent of the problem earlier this year, by the then Home Secretary Theresa May.
It found that 306 officers, 20 PCSOs and eight police staff were involved in 436 reported allegations.
The data also showed all but one constabulary had received at least one allegation, and that almost 40% of accusations involved victims of domestic abuse.
Other people who were allegedly exploited were thought to include arrested suspects and people with drug or alcohol problems.
The report also found:
Fewer than half (48%) of the 436 reported allegations had been referred to the Independent Police Complaints Commission
There was an "apparent disconnect" between the numbers of alleged cases and any subsequent staff dismissals
Officers did not have a "sufficiently clear understanding" of boundaries around establishing or pursuing relationships with vulnerable people
Some counter-corruption units did not have the ability or capacity to seek information about potential cases
Almost half of forces inspected were unable to audit or monitor the use of all IT systems, which limited the ability to spot any staff accessing databases to identify vulnerable victims
HM Inspector Mike Cunningham, who led the review, said the problem of sexual exploitation could be "more serious" than the reported numbers and forces needed to become "far more proactive in rooting out" such corruption.
Mr Cunningham told BBC Radio 4's Today programme: "Make no mistake about it, the sexual exploitation of vulnerable women is corruption. It is using authority for personal gain, which is a definition of corruption.
"It is the most serious corruption problem in the sense that it is the ultimate betrayal of trust, where the guardian becomes the abuser. That is what we are seeing in these cases, and we're seeing too many.
"The allegations that we collected across the country are not closed allegations, they're not confirmed or finalised allegations but nevertheless they are allegations."
Police officers convicted of sex crimes include:
Northumbria Police constable Stephen Mitchell was jailed for life with a minimum of seven-and-a-half years in 2011 for raping and sexually assaulting vulnerable women he met while on duty in Newcastle
West Midlands Police constable Steven Walters, 48, was jailed for four years in October for assaulting a female passenger in his patrol car and groping another woman in her home
Metropolitan Police constable James Evans was jailed for four years in August after having sex with a 15-year-old rape victim he met on the dating app Tinder
Met Police detective constable Clifford Earl was jailed for 12 months in 2013 after he sexually assaulted two women in their homes
Mr Cunningham said people such as former Northumbria officer Stephen Mitchell, who is serving two life sentences for serious sexual offences including rape, were clearly predators.
Others, he said, were opportunistic and found themselves in circumstances where they could abuse their power and authority.
Det Supt Ray Marley, of the College of Policing, said the report "highlighted a number of unacceptable cases which have a significant impact on the victims and public confidence".
Home Secretary Amber Rudd described the report as "shocking".
"It undermines justice and public confidence and there is no place in the police for anyone guilty of this sort of abuse," she said.
She said she had met the College of Policing and the NPCC to discuss action needed to tackle the problem.
"The vast majority of police officers do their jobs with integrity and I know they will share my determination to ensure the most vulnerable in our society are given the protection they deserve," she said.
In the wake of the report, IPCC chairwoman Dame Anne Owers has written to chief constables in England and Wales urging them to ensure that all cases involving abuse of authority for sexual gain are referred to the commission.
The report assessed whether officers were seen by the public to behave consistently fairly, ethically and within the law.
Two forces - Derbyshire and Kent - were graded as outstanding, 36 as good, and five - Cleveland, Dyfed-Powys, Gloucestershire, North Wales and South Yorkshire - as requiring improvement. No forces were graded as inadequate.
There are a total of 200,000 police officers in England and Wales.
|Be afraid be very afraid as the Met turn London into a military zone
|Top freemason cop guilty of homopaedo abuse against vulnerable boys for DECADES
Freemasons protected this evil bastard for decades, like Savile and Janner, even letting him win damages despite his long
history of abusing vulnerable boys.
FULL ARTICLE HERE
The vile bastards that masquerade and get employed as law enforcement
(Allan Richards, a former Scout leader and cop, convicted of homopaedo abuse against 17 boys over four decades.
Another pervert protected by freemason cops)
Scotland's top freemason judges protected jewish law lord Greville Janner from homopaedo abuse claims
Ex-police chief found guilty of sexually abusing boys in 1980s
Gordon Anglesea faced claims for quarter of a century that he preyed on boys at young offenders’ centre and children’s home
A former police superintendent has been found guilty of sexually abusing boys in the 1980s at a Home Office attendance centre for young offenders and at a children’s home.
Gordon Anglesea, 79, becomes the highest-profile offender brought to justice through the National Crime Agency’s Operation Pallial, which has been investigating allegations of widespread and organised child abuse in north Wales.
Anglesea has faced claims for a quarter of a century that he preyed on young boys, and in the mid-90s was awarded £375,000 in damages after successfully suing news organisations that had linked him to abuse.
At that time he depicted himself as an old-fashioned north Wales police officer who had been inspired by the beloved fictional cop Dixon of Dock Green.
Over the past six weeks at Mold crown court in north Wales, Anglesea has been accused of sexually abusing two boys aged 14 and 15. The first said he was assaulted by Anglesea in the shower and a changing room at the attendance centre he ran in Wrexham. Such centres were set up by the Home Office to provide an alternative to custody for youths and included physical training and woodwork.
Anglesea would “inspect” a military-style parade, make the youngsters do naked sit-ups and squat thrusts, then loiter around the showers “with a smirk on his face”, the court heard. The complainant – who described the centre as a “naughty boy school” and had been sent there for “petty” crimes – made allegations against Anglesea after receiving counselling.
He said of Anglesea: “You did what you were told because he was the boss … he used to hit everyone around the head … He was a powerful person. He’s wrecked my life.”
In the witness box, the complainant described Anglesea as “evil” and added: “I have got no respect for authority at all because of him. Since all this happened I haven’t had a life.”
The second victim lived at a children’s home called Bryn Estyn. He claimed he was taken from there to various addresses and passed around “like a handbag” to men including Anglesea.
He was accused of trying to win compensation from Anglesea. “I don’t want a penny, I don’t want a bean,” the complainant said in court. “All I want is justice, nothing else.”
In 1994, Anglesea sued the Observer, Private Eye, the Independent on Sunday and the Welsh broadcaster HTV over allegations connecting him to abuse.
During libel hearings at the high court, Anglesea, then in his late 50s, was portrayed as a stalwart of the community, a freemason, rotarian, Methodist and a school governor. He described how the allegations had made him a “leper” in the small seaside community where he lived in north Wales.
The news organisations called evidence from three young men who claimed to have been Anglesea’s victims while they were teenagers at Bryn Estyn. Anglesea persuaded the jury of his innocence and was awarded damages. The papers and broadcaster were also left with a £1m legal bill.
In 2012, the National Crime Agency launched Operation Pallial at the height of the swirl of false allegations linking the Tory peer Lord McAlpine to child abuse in the Wrexham area.
Its mission was to look at the allegations of sexual abuse within the care system in north Wales that once again surfaced during the scandal, which was triggered by a Newsnight report.
More than 300 people made contact with the investigation, dozens have been arrested and scores of complaints are still being actively investigated.
It is no surprise that so many came forward. During the Sir Ronald Waterhouse inquiry in 1997, almost 300 men and women named 148 abusers including police officers, social workers, local authority executives, senior businessmen and politicians. Waterhouse ordered that they could not be identified by the media.
Among those who have been convicted through Pallial are care home owner John Allen, who was jailed for life, and a gang of five including a former professional wrestler, a radio presenter and a civil servant, who were found to be members of a predatory paedophile ring that abused vulnerable boys.
| Mass murderer being protected by absurd laws while detective gets sacked VIDEO
Mass murderer Christopher Halliwell and EX-detective Steve Fulcher
A man serving life for murdering two women could be linked to six other killings, according to the former senior police officer who arrested him. Ex-detective Steve Fulcher claims Christopher Halliwell said police wanted to talk to him about eight murders. Mr Fulcher told this programme about the extraordinary moment Halliwell confessed to killing two women. But he's now questioning whether his former force did enough to examine Halliwell's potential links to other cases.
|Why are innocent fathers rotting in jail while criminals and murderers roam the streets?
Rogue freemason cops, judges and lawyers like it that way!!!!!!!!!!!!
FULL ARTICLE HERE
Have masonic cops been protecting mass murderer Christopher Halliwell and left an innocent ex-husband serving 13 YEARS in jail?
Hillsborough exposes freemasons behind cover up of 96 deaths
Britain's Daily Rat recently reported that
Serial killer Christopher Halliwell once worked for husband now serving life for murder of wife that he has always denied. Christopher Halliwell did building work for a husband who was later convicted of murdering his estranged wife and is still protesting his innocence in jail 13 years later.
Glyn Razzell, 44, a redundant investment banker, has been behind bars for the past thirteen years for murdering his wife Linda Razzell after she went missing in Swindon in March 2002. He has always protested his innocence.
But there are now claims that taxi driver Christopher Halliwell - the double serial killer who was last month jailed for murdering sex worker Becky Godden - could be linked to the crime.
Why would the police and courts jail an innocent ex-husband rather than catch the REAL murderer???????
The bias and prejudice within the supposed law enforcement derives from the massive theft of men's estates during
divorce and that masonic controlled system BRANDS all separated men as evil bastards that abuse their wives and children. The vast propaganda provided by a complicit media reinforces that message and makes it easier to justify stripping men bare while gaining access to their now vulnerable children for their perverted lodge buddies like
Jimmy Savile, Greville Janner and Cyril Smith.
Criminals, murderers and paedo's part of their lodge system potentially like Christopher Halliwell could continue to roam the streets murdering knowing their lodge buddies were turning a blind eye as they did with Jimmy Savile
(who claimed he was untouchable to his victims) and who was allowed to abuse 100's of children over many decades while his lodge buddies in the police would use the masonic get out clause 'insufficient evidence' to let him abuse right up until his death. That also happened with homopaedo Greville Janner and Cyril Smith and the many BBC predatory paedo's that are now getting caught. The same BBC who provides the propaganda cover for endless botched investigations by freemason cops and none more so than the 96 who died at Hillsborough football ground where for over 20 years masonic cops covered up evidence that protected rogue freemason cops failures that caused the deaths of 96 innocent victims of masonic tyranny.
So what are the mass media doing???????? Endless cover ups that still go on despite the internet becoming the main exposer of the mass murdering criminals that are still being protected by a covert system of silencing anyone who dares challenge the global criminal cartel who by the day remain getting away with murder while innocent men face a tyranny so vast all other crimes pale next to this global satanic plunder by a masonic mafia.
Fathers who have built up a decent amount of wealth in their lives are easier to rob when they are incarcerated. Criminals on the other hand are used by crooked freemason lawyers to fleece legal aid that has been propped up by good fathers stolen wealth and require to be let off or released early so their serial criminality can feed the gangsters running the legal system for their own self enrichment.
People who have yet to face this gross injustice would not believe what is going on right under their noses as it is the men dragged through divorce that see first hand the enormity of the damage being done by a masonic fist that brutalizes men into early graves due to the oppression that comes from psychological and financial torture and as their other name confirms they are the 'SILENT' destroyers.
|How freemason cops keep themselves in employment
| MET EMPLOY PSYCHOPATHS WHO ARE REPEAT OFFENDERS VIDEO
Creating their OWN terror on the streets and they want to give these fuckers machine guns
| Vicious confrontation with London's met thug cops VIDEO
Our group have seen this sort of thuggish OTT behaviour regularly by
Britain's freemasons disguised
as law enforcement
|Freemason murdering met cops get more militarized
| Cranking up Britain's police state under the guise of terrorist threats VIDEO
|London cops turned into military style police state troopers
|The Police Were Created to Control Working Class and Poor People, Not ‘Serve and Protect’
FULL ARTICLE HERE
We shouldn’t expect the police to be something they’re not. (David Shankbone / Flickr)
In most of the liberal discussions of the recent police killings of unarmed black men, there is an underlying assumption that the police are supposed to protect and serve the population. That is, after all, what they were created to do.
If only the normal, decent relations between the police and the community could be re-established, this problem could be resolved. Poor people in general are more likely to be the victims of crime than anyone else, this reasoning goes, and in that way, they are in more need than anyone else of police protection. Maybe there are a few bad apples, but if only the police weren’t so racist, or didn’t carry out policies like stop-and-frisk, or weren’t so afraid of black people, or shot fewer unarmed men, they could function as a useful service that we all need.
This liberal way of viewing the problem rests on a misunderstanding of the origins of the police and what they were created to do.
The police were not created to protect and serve the population. They were not created to stop crime, at least not as most people understand it. And they were certainly not created to promote justice. They were created to protect the new form of wage-labor capitalism that emerged in the mid- to late-19th century from the threat posed by that system’s offspring, the working class.
This is a blunt way of stating a nuanced truth, but sometimes nuance just serves to obfuscate.
Before the 19th century, there were no police forces that we would recognize as such anywhere in the world. In the Northern United States, there was a system of elected constables and sheriffs, much more responsible to the population in a very direct way than the police are today. In the South, the closest thing to a police force was the slave patrols.
Then, as Northern cities grew and filled with mostly immigrant wage workers who were physically and socially separated from the ruling class, the wealthy elite who ran the various municipal governments hired hundreds and then thousands of armed men to impose order on the new working class neighborhoods.
Class conflict roiled late-19th century American cities like Chicago, which experienced major strikes and riots in 1867, 1877, 1886, and 1894. In each of these upheavals, the police attacked strikers with extreme violence, even if in 1877 and 1894 the U.S. Army played a bigger role in ultimately repressing the working class. In the aftermath of these movements, the police increasingly presented themselves as a thin blue line protecting civilization (by which they meant bourgeois civilization) from the disorder of the working class. This ideology of order that developed in the late 19th century echoes down to today—except that today, poor black and Latino people are the main threat, rather than immigrant workers.
Of course, the ruling class did not get everything it wanted, and had to yield on many points to the immigrant workers it sought to control. This is why, for instance, municipal governments backed away from trying to stop Sunday drinking, and why they hired so many immigrant police officers, especially the Irish. But despite these concessions, businessmen organized themselves to make sure the police were increasingly isolated from democratic control, and established their own hierarchies, systems of governance, and rules of behavior.
The police increasingly set themselves off from the population by donning uniforms; establishing their own rules for hiring, promotion and firing; working to build a unique esprit des corps and identifying themselves with order. And despite complaints about corruption and inefficiency, they gained more and more support from the ruling class, to the extent that in Chicago, for instance, businessmen donated money to buy the police rifles, artillery, Gatling guns, buildings, and money to establish a police pension out of their own pockets.
There was a never a time when the big city police neutrally enforced “the law,” or came anywhere close to that ideal. (For that matter, the law itself has never been neutral.) In the North, they mostly arrested people for the vaguely defined “crimes” of disorderly conduct and vagrancy throughout the nineteenth century. This meant that the police could arrest anyone they saw as a threat to “order.” In the post-bellum South, they enforced white supremacy and largely arrested black people on trumped-up charges in order to feed them into convict labor systems.
The violence the police carried out and their moral separation from those they patrolled were not the consequences of the brutality of individual officers, but were the consequences of careful policies designed to mold the police into a force that could use violence to deal with the social problems that accompanied the development of a wage-labor economy.
For instance, in the short, sharp depression of the mid-1880s, Chicago was filled with prostitutes who worked the streets. Many policemen recognized that these prostitutes were generally impoverished women seeking a way to survive, and initially tolerated their behavior. But the police hierarchy insisted that the patrolmen do their duty whatever their feelings, and arrest these women, impose fines, and drive them off the streets and into brothels, where they could be ignored by some members of the elite and controlled by others.
Similarly, in 1885, when Chicago began to experience a wave of strikes, some policemen sympathized with strikers. But once the police hierarchy and the mayor decided to break the strikes, policemen who refused to comply were fired. In these and a thousand similar ways, the police were molded into a force that would impose order on working class and poor people, whatever the individual feelings of the officers involved.
Though some patrolmen tried to be kind and others were openly brutal, police violence in the 1880s was not a case of a few bad apples—and neither is it today.
Much has changed since the creation of the police—most importantly the influx of black people into the Northern cities, the mid-twentieth century black movement, and the creation of the current system of mass incarceration in part as a response to that movement. But these changes did not lead to a fundamental shift in policing. They led to new policies designed to preserve fundamental continuities. The police were created to use violence to reconcile electoral democracy with industrial capitalism. Today, they are just one part of the “criminal justice” system which continues to play the same role. Their basic job is to enforce order among those with the most reason to resent the system—who in our society today are disproportionately poor black people.
A democratic police system is imaginable—one in which police are elected by and accountable to the people they patrol. But that is not what we have. And it’s not what the current system of policing was created to be.
If there is one positive lesson from the history of policing’s origins, it is that when workers organized, refused to submit or cooperate and caused problems for the city governments, they could back the police off from the most galling of their activities.
Murdering individual police officers, as happened in in Chicago on May 3, 1886 and more recently in New York on December 20, 2014, only reinforced those calling for harsh repression—a reaction we are beginning to see already. But resistance on a mass scale could force the police to hesitate. This happened in Chicago during the early 1880s, when the police pulled back from breaking strikes, hired immigrant officers, and tried to re-establish some credibility among the working class after their role in brutally crushing the 1877 upheaval.
The police might be backed off again if the reaction against the killings of Eric Garner, Michael Brown, Tamir Rice and countless others continues. If they are, it will be a victory for those mobilizing today, and will save lives—though as long as this system that requires police violence to control a big share of its population survives, any change in police policy will be aimed at keeping the poor in line more effectively.
We shouldn’t expect the police to be something they’re not. We ought to know that origins matter, and the police were created by the ruling class to control working class and poor people, not help them. They’ve continued to play that role ever since.
This post first appeared at the Labor and Working Class History Assocation blog.
Sam Mitrani is an Associate Professor of History at the College of DuPage. He holds Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Chicago in 2009 and is the author of The Rise of the Chicago Police Department: Class and Conflict, 1850-1894.
|How top freemason cops get millions spent on top lawyers to protect them from incompetence and 96 deaths
This is where the masonic legal mafia and cops conspire and make millions in the process
FULL ARTICLE HERE
Police face questions over the influence of the freemasons after it emerged match commander and his boss were both members
South Yorkshire Police spent at least £2.1m on legal fees representing its suspended Chief Constable David Crompton during the Hillsborough Inquests, the BBC has discovered.
Mr Crompton's barrister alone was paid over £1m to represent him.
Several victims' families complained to the police watchdog about Mr Crompton's conduct during the inquests.
They claim the chief constable "instructed his legal team to pour blame on to Liverpool fans".
South Yorkshire's Police and Crime Commissioner (PCC) Dr Alan Billings said the legal costs - which were footed by the taxpayer - were a result of the length of the inquest, which began in March 2014.
Police chief's legal costs
Hillsborough Inquest spending breakdown
£2.1m on legal fees representing former Chief Constable David Crompton
£1m paid to his barrister
£25.1m total cost of inquest
£20.8m paid by the Home Office
£4.3m paid by the police force
Uncovered costs after analysis of thousands of data entries on the South Yorkshire Police's public spending log.
The final figure is likely to be higher as data covering February to April 2016, when the inquest finished, has not yet been published.
The inquests jury concluded all 96 Liverpool football fans who died at the 1989 FA Cup semi-final in Sheffield were unlawfully killed.
The day after the inquest, Mr Crompton was suspended from service and Dr Billings is currently undertaking proceedings to dismiss him from the service.
|Ex met cop Chris Reid behind fake bomb alarm at Manchester football match
FULL LINKEDIN PROFILE HERE
Security boss Chris Reid behind fake bomb that disrupted and caused fear and panic at Manchester United match (VIDEO)
Former G4S employee and ex Met cop behind Manchester United fake bomb farce
(It sparked mass panic as fears of a terrorist attack spread over social media)
Manchester United fake bomb 'pictured' for first time as security boss reveals it had "training aid" sticker on
Video of Chris Reid apologising for the debacle
If he is NOT a freemason we will be surprised with his background and contracts
he has procured
Linkedin Profile: Chris Reid
Current: Security Search Management & Solutions Ltd.
Previous: G4S Secure Solutions UK, Metropolitan Police
Education: University of Life & Hard Knocks (erm!!!!!!!!!!!)
I don't want to waste the knowledge, experience and passion that I have for "search"? that has been acquired over 45 years of searching. You could say that I'm still looking! Effective and correct CT Search procedures are an essential part of any security operation but are not always as effective as they should be. "CT Search" will be around long after I have gone; but until then, my objective is to provide operational excellence and training in the field of CT Search.
Owner: Security Search Management & Solutions Ltd.
2006 – Present (10 years)
Security Search Management & Solutions provides discreet operational advice and training for venues such as hotels, conference centres and sporting stadia that require a high level of confidence in their security for special events and VIP's. SSMS can also provide trained CT Searchers & Expo Dog-handlers for Operational response requirements.
In 2013 I was part of a team contracted to provide Counter Terrorist Search training to the USSS & other Government Departments involved in VIP protection and security in 16 different locations around the USA. A fantastic contract working with a great bunch of similar minded CT Search Trainers having the "can do"? attitude necessary for such operations.
Since returning from the USA, I have trained security personnel and dog handlers at Westfield, Stratford and Twickenham RFU. RFU training is always ongoing and was an essential part of last year's Rugby World Cup where I provided an assuring eye on search and other security responses.
I spent April and May of 2014 up in Glasgow writing Venue Security Plans and SOP's for the 2014 Commonwealth Games.
In July 2014, my company provided a CT Search Team with Expo Dog, for the Farnborough International Air Show. Contracted by RJA Security, a thoroughly professional and organised company, we enjoyed a very successful and rewarding experience working with RJA and the Hampshire Constabulary Search Teams. My small team did my company credit with their professionalism and willingness to go that extra mile. Two of them were with me in the States last year - just as good operationally as they are at training.
O2 Arena, Oct 2014 & August 2015 - Provision of X-Ray screening Prohibited Items Recognition Training. This training was about recognising prohibited items, IED's/Firearms & component parts & other common offensive weapons.It is vital that x-ray operatives know exactly what they are looking at on a screen and what that item looks like in real life.
Search & Screening Training and Assurance Manager
G4S Secure Solutions UK
October 2011 – September 2012 (1 year)
In the lead-up and during the London 2012 Olympics I had responsibility for the initial training of all personnel who provided the Search & Screening capability for Vehicles and Persons entering the Olympic Park plus refresher training and procedural quality assurance during the Games period.
Counter Terrorist Police Search Advisor (PolSA)
September 1979 – October 2011 (32 years 2 months)London, United Kingdom
Responsible for advising Chief Police Officers on Counter Terrorist and other search related matters. Planning, Command & Control of Search Operations, e.g. Royal engagements, State Visits, Military events, Bomb scenes, Major crime scenes, Missing Persons, Summits such as G20, etc.
|UK's freemason mafia, disguised as cops, use their media goons to warp press reports in their favour
Hillsborough: IPCC to investigate South Yorkshire Police 'spin' claims
FULL ARTICLE HERE
Hillsborough exposes freemasons behind cover up of 96 deaths
Hillsborough: Freemason cops banned from working on criminal probe into cover-up
(The revelation adds weight to the theory that members of the secretive organisation suppressed the truth after 96 Liverpool fans died in 1989)
South Yorkshire Police chief David Crompton suspended over Hillsborough
Calls for senior freemason cops to be held accountable for the deaths of 96 fans in the Hillsborough disaster
Hillsborough 'justice' hailed, but not on Murdoch's vile rag the Sun's front page
'They'd throw me to the wolves': Hillsborough cop on why she feared speaking out
(How senior freemason cops deal with anyone who dares to fall out of line)
Hillsborough inquests: Fans unlawfully killed, jury concludes (Freemasons running the police covered up
and protected senior officers)
Thatcher henchman Sir Bernard Ingham who labelled Liverpool fans 'tanked up yobs' refuses to apologise to Hillsborough families
The police watchdog has launched an investigation after a former South Yorkshire Police press officer claimed she was asked to "spin" news during the Hillsborough inquests.
Hayley Court claimed she was asked to encourage the media to report evidence favourable to the police, including that fans were partly to blame.
She said she was told to "get the media together and tell them what to write".
The force has said Ms Court's claims were "not substantiated".
A spokesman for the Independent Police Complaints Commission said: "Following an assessment of the available evidence, the IPCC has decided to conduct an independent investigation into this matter."
Ms Court claimed she felt trapped when she realised she had been given an "impossible job" that was "wholly unethical".
"It seemed to me to be more about how we could share the blame," she said.
"If South Yorkshire Police was going to be found partly responsible for what happened then all the other interested parties should be found partly responsible as well.
"If that meant perpetuating comments about fans being drunk, if that meant perpetuating comments about fans forcing gates then that was how they were going to do it."
Ninety-six football fans died in the 1989 disaster, which unfolded during an FA Cup semi-final between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest.
A jury at the inquests concluded the fans had been unlawfully killed.
They also criticised SYP's planning for the match, and highlighted a catalogue of failures by senior officers on the day.
The stadium was also said to have contained "defects" that contributed to the disaster, and Sheffield Wednesday FC and South Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance Service were criticised.
The supporters were exonerated of any blame.
SYP's chief constable David Crompton was suspended the day after the inquests concluded because there had been an "erosion of trust".
Meanwhile, the 96 victims of the disaster are to be awarded the Freedom of Liverpool.
Other key figures in the 27-year campaign to receive the city's highest civic honour are former Liverpool manager Kenny Dalglish and his wife Marina; the former Bishop of Liverpool, the Rt Rev James Jones and Prof Phil Scraton from the Hilllsborough Independent Panel.
| Cop Training Exercise Turns Deadly VIDEO
|Sarah Reed (a victim of British cop thuggery) dies at Holloway prison VIDEO
|How Cities Secretly Protect Bad Cops VIDEO
|UK stasi influenced cops even propose to activists they are spying on VIDEO
Britain's freemason mafia infiltrated into law enforcement is the most sinister arm of tyranny
An extraordinary story of Andrea - who says she is the victim of a state sponsored crime. She became engaged to a
man who, entirely unknown to her, was for many years working undercover for the police. For more than two years he
promised her a new life, a new family and marriage. Then he simply disappeared. She had no idea what had gone
wrong until she started to understand that the whole relationship had been a sham. He was married, living a
double life, and sent to infiltrate her group of friends who were being watched - it seems - for their
political beliefs. She calls the entire relationship a government sanctioned lie.
It's not the first time
this has happened within the Metropolitan Police. At the end of last year Police chiefs made an unreserved
apology to women who were deceived into similar relationships - and paid out substantial compensation.
They thought they'd drawn a line under the abuse - but this investigation by Newsnight and The Guardian shows
that the problems for the Met are far from over.
| Former British official blames police tactics for youth radicalization VIDEO
|What useful purpose does the IPPC serve?
IPCC Britains 'Independent Police Complaints Commission' (which is FAR from independent)
Any victim of malpractice in Orwellian Britain who dares to complain will soon learn that ALL Departments of the British State, ALL agencies of the British State, ALL Quangos, & ALL 'Independent'(??) watchdogs are run by Quislings.
The 'purpose'(??) of the IPCC (like all such bodies) is to provide well paid 'jobs for the boys', the secondary purpose being to give the gullible the idea that there is a remedy for those who have suffered such malpractice.
As for the British Legion! : Don't expect help from them! That is another outfit run by Quislings, not only nationally, but each local branch is run by cabals of Quislings. They PURPORT to help ALL ex-servicemen, but when I was under attack & sought help from them, they ran away as fast as their cowardly legs would take them. The Royal Naval Association & the Russian Convoy Club have been even worse, but I say no more at the moment.
Poppy Day is State Propaganda, a glorification of war!
And almost all the British people join in. All but a tiny few are afraid to be seen without one!
Veteran of the Arctic Convoys of World War 2.
My exposure of corruption in the British courts & police brought 18 years of persecution.
To escape more, at the age of 86 I was forced to flee the land of my birth for safety in the Republic of Ireland.
|Why are London’s Police travelling to Israel?
Latest garb that now makes London's masonic mafia disguised as cops look like the military
FULL ARTICLE HERE
Chilling new face of police in Britain: Female 'robocops' dressed in military fatigues and armed with semi-automatic rifles are new face of counter-terrorism
In the six month period from 1st March 2014 to 31st August 2014, Eighty of London’s Metropolitan Police staff travelled to Israel. This period coincides with Operation Protective Edge, the recent bombardment and massacre of of over 2000 Palestinians in Gaza.
Recently it was revealed that the Israeli army is systematically training US police forced in tactics and strategy developed as an occupying army. Has the same or similar service been provided to European police forces?
The Metropolitan Police will not reveal the purpose of the trips to Israel or the rank of the staff that travelled. A reason given for withholding the information is that it would “have the effect of compromising law enforcement tactics and strategies ”. However, If the Metropolitan Police are learning inappropriate tactics and strategy to use on London civilians then, it is for that very reason, that this information should be released into the public domain.
“Israel’s excellence in weaponry, surveillance systems, containment strategies, biometric data collection, crowd control and psychological warfare are all marketable. Israeli know-how has become indispensable to the global appetite for “homeland security””?—?Jonathan Cook, Journalist
If it’s the reverse and the police are teaching tactics and strategy to Israel in the context of its illegal occupation then it shows a level of involvement in the occupation that was hitherto hidden and may imply criminal behaviour according to international law.
The recent events in Ferguson demonstrate the danger of an over militarised police. Do we want to see this in Europe? Eran Efrati warned that Israel’s training of American police is dangerous. Their methods are developed in a context, where the “citizens” are seen and treated as an enemy to be crushed. As he explains, “when your police come back, you become their enemy”.
|This is how the UK's masonic mafia disguised as cops act during reporting of crimes VIDEO
Anyone who has crossed paths with Britain's corrupt murderous cop regime will know
this is a common occurrence of them FAILING in their duty to firstly record a report
of criminal activity and then THEY decide in their own wisdom to do nothing about
the reported crime. They are to busy using their police time to help bailiff's steal
land, business, property and children during divorce and separation where you will
see lines of cop cars backing up the criminal activity of crooked masonic judges, lawyers,
councils and bailiffs involved in mass seizure of men's estates through dodgy court orders.
Previously ACPO now NPCC (National Police Chiefs' Council) are infested with freemasons
only to happy to support criminal activity instigated by Britain's terrorists at the
law society who make ALL OTHER crime pale next to the trillions they thieve through
divorce actions funded by the legal aid board another arm of the law society.
| GREATER MANCHESTER POLICE GMP ARE CORRUPT SAYS GMP CHIEF INSPECTOR VIDEO
|Freemason thugs masquerading as cops 'blackmailing' drivers out of millions to attend speed awareness courses
Police forces are pocketing tens of millions of pounds by ‘blackmailing’ motorists to attend speed awareness courses, it has been revealed.
FULL ARTICLE HERE
They received £54 million last year alone by sending more than 1.3 million drivers on the controversial one-day sessions.
The startling figures explode the myth that chief constables have no interest in snaring motorists because all fines go directly to the Treasury.
Instead, they are quietly making millions by undercutting the Government-imposed fine and offering tempting places on ‘touchy-feely’ courses at hotels instead.
Details of the lucrative ‘industry’ emerged amid a furious row over the role of roadside cameras, with a senior police leader threatening to permanently switch on cameras on a busy stretch of the M1 to raise £1 million.
Olly Martins, the Police and Crime Commissioner for Bedfordshire Police, threatened to strictly enforce the 70mph limit, raising the prospect of motorists being fined for travelling just a few miles an hour faster.
Many drivers attend a course because it means they escape getting points on their licence – which could increase their insurance premium – and it is often cheaper than paying the speeding fine. The number of attendees has almost trebled in just five years.
Roger Lawson, of the Alliance of British Drivers, said: ‘This shows what an enormous amount of money the police are generating from this scam, which will of course be used to finance yet more speed cameras and more prosecutions.
‘Drivers are being blackmailed into taking an education course – pay up or incur an even larger fine. Why should the police be making £54 million a year from blackmail?’
Government figures yesterday raced to slap down Mr Martins, saying cameras should be used only to ensure the safety of road users. Downing Street attacked the proposal and Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin said it would be a flagrant breach of official guidelines.
Other Police and Crime Commissioners quickly distanced themselves from the move, saying that ‘speed cameras are there to make people safe’.
Speed cameras are there to make people safe
In private, many said they did not believe Mr Martins would go through with his threat, saying it was simply a politically motivated ‘PR stunt’ to grab public attention.
Essex leader Nick Alston said all money from motoring prosecutions should be ploughed into safety schemes, not used as a fund for other problems.
But the controversy showed no sign of going away as Mr Martins explained how his force would profit from the crackdown.
He revealed that although fines from speeding drivers go to the Government, individual forces profit from speed awareness courses. Last year, 1,355,796 drivers undertook the safety courses, according to the National Driver Offending Retraining Scheme, which oversees them.
The majority – 1,185,860 – attended speed awareness courses. Others attended sessions aimed at careless drivers, those who did not use a seatbelt and motorcyclists.
Police forces receive £40 for each attendee in most cases as a ‘cost recovery element’, with chief constables able to spend the money in any way they see fit.
The courses, which cost drivers between £79 and £200, often involve watching videos, role-playing workshops and presentations. There is no test to pass and adverts promise a ‘relaxing environment’.
Official figures show a sharp increase in the numbers taking the courses from the 467,601 in 2010, when the scheme was in its infancy.
The National Driver Retraining Scheme is owned and overseen by a private firm, NDORS Ltd, which registered a £44 million turnover in March 2014. One director is former South Yorkshire Chief Constable Meredydd Hughes, who was once responsible for national roads policing. The courses are run by private providers selected by each individual force. They include private companies, including one formed by the AA, road safety partnerships and even county councils.
All of the courses are run to a nationally agreed model to ensure drivers have a similar experience.
In its most recent accounts, the firm appears to acknowledge its controversial business model could be vulnerable if the views of ministers change.
It warned of a potential change in policy about its role as a ‘politically acceptable model for diversion of road traffic offences to education as opposed to prosecution’.
But the directors said the most recent figures show police forces remain enthusiastic about the courses and that driver numbers were increasing.
‘Forces and partners recognise the value added to road safety by the secure and efficient administration of the scheme and new forces continue to join each year,’ they added.
Downing Street yesterday appeared to fall foul of the confusion which surrounds where cash from speed cameras ends up.
David Cameron’s official spokesman said: ‘We are very clear that speed cameras should be about safety, not about raising cash.
The point we would make to those thinking about using them for other means is that it is important to note that revenue generated from speeding offences doesn’t go to police forces, it goes to a central fund.’
Mr McLoughlin added: ‘Speed cameras are for safety and reducing dangerous driving, not raising cash.
‘They should be located where there is likely to be a risk. This is yet another example of a Labour politician punishing drivers as a first resort.’
Sources at the Department for Transport accused Mr Martins of ‘crying wolf’ as they published statistics revealing our roads are the safest they have been for a decade.
The RAC said the majority of motorists saw speed cameras primarily as a money-making scheme for the police.
Chief engineer David Bizley said: ‘It appears that the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner harbours this view too. Enforcement needs to be prioritised in terms of road safety benefits and not in terms of the value of the revenues generated.’
|Met's masonic cops used 'mole to spy on defendants so they could tamper with evidence'
Daniel Morgan murdered with an axe through his head for trying to expose cops dealing in drugs
and his freemason boss Rees who used his masonic lodge buddies inside the Met to help
the Murdoch mafia get exclusives.
FULL ARTICLE HERE
Murdoch's News of the World 'undermined axe murder inquiry'exposing corrupt cops
Freemasonry the evil that binds corrupt murdering British cops
Trust in police 'severely shaken' by corruption
Masonic Met betrayed my brother: cop corruption link Stephen Lawrence and Daniel Morgan murders
Judge(freemason?) to probe axe murder of private detective: Notorious corruption case dates back 26 years
POLICE CORRUPTION COVER UP OF DEATH OF PRIVATE DETECTIVE DANIEL MORGAN 24 YEARS AGO (VIDEO)
DANIEL MORGAN AXE MURDER CONNECTED TO MURDOCH MAFIA HACKING SCANDAL(VIDEO)
FREEMASON SET UP SPY NETWORK OF CORRUPT COPS, TAXMEN AND BANKERS
Jonathan Rees: Freemason private investigator who ran empire of tabloid corruption
'Former detective was paid £21,000 to pass on secret details of legal cases while working undercover for the Met'
Police have been accused of paying an undercover mole to spy on private legal meetings before court cases – and in at least one instance allegedly changed key evidence to ensure an unfairly obtained conviction.
A former detective was paid £21,000 to pass on confidential details of defendants’ legal cases while secretly working for the Metropolitan Police, an official inquiry into undercover policing has been told.
At least one conviction is being reviewed as a potential miscarriage of justice over claims the alleged spying undermined the defendant’s right to a fair trial.
The bombshell claim has been made in written submissions to Lord Justice Pitchford, chairman of the undercover policing inquiry set up by Home Secretary Theresa May and due to begin next year.
If proved to be true, the revelations could lead to more criminals coming forward and potentially seeing their convictions overturned.
Lawyers told Lord Justice Pitchford that Derek Haslam, a former Met detective, became a ‘covert human intelligence source’ while employed at a private detective agency.
Haslam – who mostly carried out work on behalf of defendants in court cases – was given access to legally privileged material such as witness statements and transcripts, and is believed to have given his Scotland Yard handlers copies of the sensitive material ahead of several criminal trials.
As well as breaching the legal protocol that private correspondence and meetings between defendants and their lawyers should remain confidential, in one case – a drugs prosecution – it is claimed his information ‘enabled the police changing their evidence’ when it came to court.
The defendant in that case, John Elliott, was jailed for 14 years for possession of 60,000 ecstasy tablets with intent to supply. He denied the offences and has always insisted he was set up.
His case is due to be investigated by the Criminal Cases Review Commission (CCRC), which deals with potential miscarriages of justice.
Lawyers in another case said Haslam’s involvement was ‘a fundamental abuse of the process of the court’.
For nearly nine years, from 1998 to 2006 – when his cover was blown – Haslam was working for the Met’s covert anti-corruption unit, known as CIB3.
His handlers had given him the task of infiltrating a South London detective agency with alleged links to corrupt detectives.
It was run by Jonathan Rees, then a suspect in the notorious 1987 murder of his business partner, Daniel Morgan, in South London, whose body was discovered with an axe in the back of his head. The crime has never been solved.
Haslam, an old friend of Rees, joined the firm to try to gather evidence against him.
Bugs were planted in Rees’s offices which resulted in the private detective being jailed for unrelated offences of conspiring to plant drugs on a client’s wife in 2000.
At a preliminary hearing last week, Rees, who was cleared of involvement in Morgan’s murder in 2011, told Lord Justice Pitchford that Haslam explained to him that he wanted ‘to come back into the fold and join my company’.
Rees’s work involved assisting solicitors and barristers with defence work and it was decided his expertise would prove useful.
Although he didn’t name Haslam in court, Rees told the hearing: ‘Through that work, he [Haslam] would become involved in clients’ cases and, obviously, in that position he would be privy to their confidential legal privileged information.’
Nigel Shepherd, a solicitor representing Elliott and Rees, made the allegations about Haslam – which he vehemently denies – in a letter to the inquiry. In it, he formally requested ‘core participant status’ for several clients, allowing them to cross examine witnesses.
Elliott, a publican, has outlined Haslam’s role in his case in a written statement to the CCRC. A CCRC spokesman said last night it expected to begin a ‘substantive review of his case’ soon.
The inquiry judge: Lord Justice Pitchford, who is heading the three-year inquiry into undercover policing. Lawyers for Rees alerted him to allegations of spying by the Met (see below)
Elliott said he was asked in early 1999 by an acquaintance to collect a Vauxhall Cavalier from a hotel next to Brands Hatch racetrack in Kent.
Soon after picking it up, he was stopped and arrested. Police found 7,448g of ecstasy in the boot, which Elliott insists he didn’t know was there. Later, his solicitors were assisted in preparing his defence by Rees, his colleague, former Met detective Sid Fillery, and Haslam.
They examined evidence from officers ‘present at Brands Hatch as a result of information received’, and claim they crucially undermined it.
In a statement, the officers specified the number of the room in which they said they watched Elliott load the Cavalier with drugs.
But when Rees and his team visited the hotel – The Thistle at Brands Hatch – they found Room 223 didn’t overlook the car park but was on a different side of the hotel.
‘There were other things we found out that took the case apart and the legal team was delighted,’ said Rees.
But when the case came to court he said the mistakes had been omitted from the prosecution evidence.
And earlier, according to Elliott, he was warned by Haslam – ostensibly working on his defence case – not to repeat his belief in court that he had been framed as ‘juries did not like such allegations’.
Mr Shepherd said: ‘In about March 1999, Haslam was involved in enquiries... on behalf of a Mr John Elliott, and is believed to have passed to the police information about the defence in his case which enabled the police changing their evidence.’
In particular, Rees recalled that when the case came to court, the prosecution said the surveillance officer had been mistaken about seeing Elliott from Room 223.
Elliott says in his statement: ‘I cannot show police tailored their evidence because they were aware my lawyers had discovered it was not possible to see much from Room 223... but I am advised if my meetings... were covered by legal professional privilege then any participation in them by a police agent should have been disclosed.’
One of the other cases Haslam worked on involved suspected corrupt policemen, Tom Kingston, Tom Reynolds and Terry O’Connell, who were convicted of a conspiracy to supply £7,500 worth of amphetamine sulphate in 2000.
Lawyers for the men claimed that during their appeal – which they lost – the Met used Mr Haslam as a ‘spy in the defence camp’ that amounted to a ‘fundamental abuse of the process of the court’.
Karen Todner, a solicitor, representing the three former officers said yesterday that they also wish to take part in the inquiry.
‘We have made an application for them to be core witnesses,’ she said. ‘They felt the other side was one step ahead of them in the appeal and they could never understand it.’
The Pitchford inquiry was set up by the Home Office following disclosures Scotland Yard spied on the family of Stephen Lawrence after his 1993 murder.
There have also been concerns over undercover officers having sexual relationships with women involved in campaign groups, and the use of dead infants’ names to create fake identities.
Last night Mr Haslam said he had no knowledge of John Elliott’s case and denied claims he passed on privileged information to his handlers.
He added: ‘When I was doing that [undercover role] I signed the Official Secrets Act. I was well aware of the legality of everything and the one thing I was aware of was client confidentiality.
‘In one case, I did some work because if I had refused... it would have shown me out to Rees and blown what I was trying to do on behalf of the MPS. I explained it to my handlers fully.
‘We had a meeting and it was agreed that yes, I could carry on with [assisting a defence case] providing I didn’t pass any information to them and they didn’t ask me anything. I have never ever passed any client details.’
Scotland Yard declined to discuss the claims ahead of the inquiry.
| Britain's masonic racist cops use NWO cattle prods(tasers) on far more black victims VIDEO
| Murderous masonic met cops forced to pay out thousands to student protesters VIDEO
Evil tory scum use same murderous cop tactics against protesting students as they did with the miners
| The axe murder of Daniel Morgan, the masonic met and Murdoch mafia VIDEO
|Police watchdog expands inquiry into cover-up of elite homopaedo network
The IPCC full of retired cops only interested in protecting their lodge buddies behind
the massive cover up of abuse.
FULL ARTICLE HERE
The police watchdog is to broaden its investigation into claims Scotland Yard covered up a network of high-profile paedophiles dating back to the 1970s, after a significant increase in allegations made by retired officers.
The Independent Police Complaints Commission is examining 30 allegations of police corruption in the handling of child abuse claims, including allegations that special branch and senior police officers intervened to block investigations into VIPs and politicians.
The IPCC announced 12 more investigations into the Metropolitan police’s handling of abuse claims on Wednesday, adding to 17 that were announced earlier this year. Another allegation has been made against Essex police, bringing the total to 3o.
The majority of the investigations stem from allegations made by retired Met officers, the watchdog said. Among the new investigations, one concerns allegations that a prosecution against a government official over child sexual abuse images was dropped on the instructions of senior officers and lawyers.
Another concerns allegations that high-ranking officers prematurely shut down an investigation into a south-west London paedophile ring in the 1970s.
A separate investigation has been launched into claims that an MP was arrested and then released without charge following an inquiry into a south London paedophile ring in the 80s. It is alleged that officers were threatened with breaking the Official Secrets Act if they spoke of the events.
The investigations are to be conducted by the internal professional standards departments at the Met and the Essex force but will be overseen by the IPCC. However, Scotland Yard revealed a further 18 allegations have been referred to the police watchdog and the force is waiting on a decision.
“We would encourage anyone who has information or knowledge of how these historical cases were investigated to come forward and assist with the investigations,” a spokeswoman for the Met said.
Among the most recent wave of allegations to be looked at by the IPCC is that evidence relating to child abuse at a youth club in the 1980s and 90s that involved politicians and council officers went missing from a London police station.
Another claim alleges that an MP was charged with specimen child sex offences and not more numerous or serious offences. It has also been alleged that special branch made attempts in the 70s to interfere in an investigation that would have revealed an MP’s involvement in child sex offences.
A further claim contends that an allegation of child sex abuse in central London in the 80s was halted when it became apparent that an MP was involved.
Other allegations referred to the watchdog in March arose during Operation Fairbank, Scotland Yard’s investigation into allegations that establishment figures abused children at Elm Guest House in Barnes, south-west London, during the 70s and 80s.
Investigators are also examining claims that Essex police failed to examine intelligence provided by a witness that an MP was involved in child sexual abuse.
Separately, the future of Operation Midland, Scotland Yard’s investigation into an alleged ring of high-profile paedophiles, is in the balance. The force is considering the findings of a review of the inquiry, and there have been reports that the evidence of its key witness may be in doubt.
The operation was set up by the Met nearly a year ago to examine claims that boys were systematically abused in the 70s and 80s by figures from politics, the military and security services at locations across southern England, including the Dolphin Square estate in south-west London.
Detectives have faced calls to shelve Midland, which is based on the testimony of one witness, known only as Nick, once described by police as “credible and true”. Recent reports have suggested faith in his evidence has weakened.
It has now emerged that Scotland Yard launched a review of Midland in April. The review concluded at the end of last month and the findings are now being considered.
A Met spokesman said: “An internal review of Operation Midland was commissioned on 8 April 2015. It is routine for investigations of this nature to be reviewed in this way. The review was carried out, with the full report submitted on 25 August. The product of this review is under consideration.
“We are not prepared to comment on the review in any detail at this time as Midland is an ongoing investigation.”
On Tuesday, Ken Macdonald QC, the former director of public prosecutions, said detectives investigating historical child abuse allegations should not indulge “narcissists and fantasists”.
Nigel Evans MP, the former Commons deputy speaker who was acquitted of rape and sexual assault charges last year, criticised police for playing “judge and jury” over Nick’s allegations before the investigation had concluded.
Nick’s claims formed part of the allegations put to Harvey Proctor, the former Conservative MP, during a police interview. At a press conference last month Proctor said he was completely innocent and accused police of a witch-hunt against homosexuals.
He disclosed that he had been questioned about his alleged involvement in a paedophile ring with the former prime minister Edward Heath and the former home secretary Leon Brittan.
Nick has claimed MPs and other high-profile figures were linked to the alleged murder of three children aged seven to 16 between the mid-70s and mid-80s, including that of a child who was run down by a car.
At a press conference last year, DS Kenny McDonald, who heads up Operation Midland, said he believed Nick’s evidence to be “credible and true”. But McDonald in recent weeks has faced criticism for having expressed this view, and the police force is now reportedly unprepared to back the testimony in such certain terms.
| Masonic met in multiple cover ups of establishment homopaedo's VIDEO